For isotopic charge exchange, or muon transfer reactions (5.9), differential nuclear cross sections similarly calculated by Chiccoli et al.  and Wozniak  are used, except for , where the rate measured by our group, s-1 (energy independent) , was used as a nominal input. Although the experimental , obtained in similar conditions to this thesis, appeared more reliable than the theory, simulations with the theoretical were also performed, wherever possible, to check the systematic effects.
Muon transfer to heavy elements takes place when muonic hydrogen reaches target materials such as gold. The rate for these reactions is taken to be a high value (1012 s-1) to ensure rapid transfer in the simulation.